The Chios massacre of 1822 was perhaps the worst atrocity carried out by the Ottomans against Greeks during the War of Independence.
Approximately three-quarters of the population of 120,000 were killed, enslaved or died of disease after thousands of Turkish troops landed on the eastern Aegean island to put down a rebellion against the Ottoman rule.
Island of traders
For over 2,000 years, Chios merchants and shipowners had been prominent in trade and diplomacy throughout the Black Sea, the Aegean, and the Mediterranean.
The Ottoman Empire allowed Chios almost complete control over its own affairs as Chian trade and the very highly-valued mastic plant harvested only on Chios were of great value to it.
The cosmopolitan Chians were also very prominent in Constantinople. The island’s ruling classes were reluctant to join the Greek revolt, fearing the loss of their security and prosperity. Furthermore, they were aware that they were situated far too close to the Turkish heartland in Anatolia to be safe.
Things changed in March 1822 when several hundred armed Greeks from the neighboring island of Samos landed in Chios. They attacked the Turks, who retreated to the citadel. Many islanders also decided to join the revolution.
However, the vast majority of the population had by all accounts done nothing to provoke the reprisals and had not joined other Greeks in their revolt against the Ottoman Empire.
The Turks sent reinforcements on March 22. On March 31, orders were given to burn down the town, and over the next four months, an estimated 40,000 Turkish troops arrived.
In addition to setting fires, the troops were ordered to kill all infants under three years old, all males 12 years and older, and all females 40 and older, except those willing to convert to Islam.
Tens of thousands of survivors dispersed throughout Europe and became part of the Chian Diaspora.
Europe in shock
The massacre shocked Europe and protesters emerged and famous artists dedicated works to this grief.
Eugene Delacroix, the famous French painter, created a great painting from the Massacre of Chios depicting the horrors and atrocities of the Turks.
Victor Hugo wrote a poem about it. Voluntary organizations collected money to support the Greek Revolution with arms and weapons, while many Westerners came to Greece to fight against the Ottomans.
On June 6th, 1822, Konstantinos Kanaris, a native of Chios retaliated. Kanaris survived the massacre and set ablaze a Turkish fleet that had landed in the port of Chios, killing 2,000 Turks and destroying all the ships in the port.